Alcohol & Drug Addiction

Alcohol and Drug addiction are the most obvious forms of addiction. The purpose is to educate readers concerning the symptoms and risks associated with these drugs. On this page, we have highlighted:

Below is an overview of symptoms of drug abuse, followed by risk factors and complications of drug abuse:

Symptoms

By Mayo Clinic staff

Most drug addictions start with casual or social use of a drug. For some people, this is as far as it goes. For other people, using the drug becomes a habit and use becomes more and more frequent. As time passes, you may need larger doses of the drug to get high. Soon you may need the drug just to feel good. As your drug use increases, you may find that it becomes increasingly difficult to go without the drug. Stopping may cause intense cravings and make you feel physically ill (withdrawal symptoms).

Drug addiction symptoms or behaviors include:

  • Feeling that you have to use the drug regularly — this can be daily or even several times a day
  • Failing in your attempts to stop using the drug
  • Making certain that you maintain a supply of the drug
  • Spending money on the drug even though you can’t afford it
  • Doing things to obtain the drug that you normally wouldn’t do, such as stealing
  • Feeling that you need the drug to deal with your problems
  • Driving or doing other risky activities when you’re under the influence of the drug
  • Focusing more and more time and energy on getting and using the drug

Recognizing drug abuse in teenagers
Possible indications that your teenager is using drugs include:

  • Problems at school. Frequently missing classes or missing school, a sudden disinterest in school or school activities, and a drop in grades may be indicators of drug use.
  • Physical health issues. Lack of energy and motivation may indicate your child is using certain drugs.
  • Neglected appearance. Adolescents are generally concerned about how they look. A lack of interest in clothing, grooming or looks may be a warning sign of drug use.
  • Changes in behavior. Teenagers enjoy privacy, but exaggerated efforts to bar family members from entering their rooms or knowing where they go with their friends might indicate drug use. Also, drastic changes in behavior and in relationships with family and friends may be linked to drug use.
  • Spending money. Sudden requests for money without a reasonable explanation for its use may be a sign of drug use. You may also discover money stolen from previously safe places at home. Items may disappear from your home because they’re being sold to support a drug habit.

Recognizing signs of drug use and dependence
The particular signs and symptoms of drug use and dependence vary depending on the type of drug. You might be able to tell that a family member or a friend is using or abusing a drug based on the physical and behavioral signs and symptoms associated with the drug.

Marijuana and hashish
It’s possible to develop a psychological addiction to cannabis compounds including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) found in marijuana and hashish. People who have a marijuana addiction generally use the drug on a daily basis.

Signs of use and dependence can include:

  • A heightened sense of visual, auditory and taste perception
  • Poor memory
  • Increased blood pressure and heart rate
  • Red eyes
  • Decreased coordination
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Increased appetite
  • Slowed reaction time
  • Paranoid thinking

Barbiturates and benzodiazepines
Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are prescription central nervous system depressants. Phenobarbital, amobarbital (Amytal) and secobarbital (Seconal) are examples of barbiturates. Benzodiazepines include tranquilizers such as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), clonazepam (Klonopin) and chlordiazepoxide (Librium).

Signs of use and dependence can include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Slurred speech
  • Lack of coordination
  • Memory impairment
  • Confusion
  • Slowed breathing and decreased blood pressure
  • Dizziness
  • Depression

Methamphetamine, cocaine and other stimulants
This class of drugs includes amphetamines, methamphetamine, cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin).

Signs of use and dependence can include:

  • Euphoria
  • Decreased appetite
  • Rapid speech
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Depression as the drug wears off
  • Nasal congestion and damage to the mucous membrane of the nose in users who snort drugs
  • Insomnia
  • Weight loss
  • Increased heart rate, blood pressure and temperature
  • Paranoia

Methamphetamine, also known as “meth,” is a particularly dangerous drug. It’s highly addictive and causes a number of short-term and long-term health consequences. Methamphetamine is relatively inexpensive and widely available.

Club drugs
Club drugs are drugs commonly used by teens and young adults at clubs, concerts and parties. Examples include Ecstasy (MDMA), GHB, Rohypnol (“roofies”) and ketamine. These drugs are not all classified in the same category, but they share some similar effects and dangers.

Signs of club drug use and dependence can include:

  • An exaggerated feeling of great happiness or well-being (euphoria)
  • Reduced inhibitions
  • A heightened or altered sense of sight, sound and taste
  • Amphetamine-like effects (with ketamine and Ecstasy)
  • Impaired coordination
  • Impaired judgment
  • Memory problems or loss of memory
  • Increased or decreased heart rate and blood pressure
  • Drowsiness and loss of consciousness (with GHB and Rohypnol)

GHB and Rohypnol are particularly dangerous. At high doses, these can cause seizures, coma and death. The danger increases when these drugs are taken with alcohol. Because they impair consciousness and memory, and the fact that they’re easy to give someone without their knowledge or consent, these drugs are both commonly used as date-rape drugs.

One particular danger of club drugs is that the liquid, pill or powder forms of these drugs available on the street often contain unknown substances which can be harmful, including other illegally manufactured or pharmaceutical drugs.

Hallucinogens
Use of hallucinogens produces different signs and symptoms depending on the drug. The most common hallucinogens are LSD and phencyclidine (PCP).

Signs of LSD use include:

  • Hallucinations
  • Greatly reduced perception of reality, for example, interpreting input from one of your senses as another, such as hearing colors
  • Permanent mental changes in perception
  • Rapid heart rate
  • High blood pressure
  • Tremors
  • Flashbacks, a re-experience of the hallucinations — even years later

Signs of PCP use include:

  • Hallucinations
  • Euphoria
  • Delusions
  • Panic
  • Loss of appetite
  • Depression
  • Aggressive, possibly violent behavior

Inhalants
The signs and symptoms of inhalant use vary depending on what substance is inhaled. Some commonly inhaled substances include glue, paint thinners, correction fluid, felt tip marker fluid, gasoline, cleaning fluids and household aerosol products.

When inhaled, these products can cause brief intoxication and a decreased feeling of inhibition. Long-term use may cause seizures and damage to the brain, liver and kidneys. Inhalant use can also cause death.

Narcotic painkillers
Opioids are narcotic, painkilling drugs produced naturally from opium or made synthetically. This class of drugs includes heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone and oxycodone (OxyContin).

Signs of narcotic use and dependence can include:

  • Reduced sense of pain
  • Sedation
  • Depression
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Slowed breathing
  • Needle marks (if injecting drugs)

When to see a doctor

If you think your drug use is out of control or is causing problems, get help. The sooner you seek help, the greater your chances are for a long-term recovery. Your family doctor may be a good place to start, or you may see a mental health provider such as a psychologist or psychiatrist.

Make an appointment to see a doctor if:

  • You can’t stop using a drug
  • Your drug use has led to unsafe behavior, such as sharing needles or unprotected sex
  • You think you may be having withdrawal symptoms after you stop taking a drug

If you’re initially reluctant to approach a doctor, help lines or hot lines may be a good place to start to learn about treatment. You can find these lines listed in the phone book or on the Internet.

Seek emergency help if you or someone you know has taken a drug and:

  • May have overdosed
  • Loses consciousness
  • Has trouble breathing
  • Has seizures
  • Has signs of a heart attack, such as chest pain or pressure
  • Has any other troublesome physical or psychological reaction to use of the drug

Staging an intervention

Because many drug users deny they have a problem, they won’t seek help on their own. Family members, friends or co-workers may need to persuade the user to seek treatment. If you have a friend or family member with a drug problem who won’t get help, you may need to take steps to organize a planned intervention.

An intervention is a carefully planned process in which family and friends, teachers, clergy members or others join together to confront someone about the consequences of addiction, and ask him or her to accept a treatment plan. A successful intervention involves careful planning, research and teamwork. If you think you need to set up an intervention, learn how to do it correctly. A carefully organized intervention can be very successful, but a poorly planned confrontation can make the situation worse.

Risk factors

By Mayo Clinic staff

People of any age, sex or economic status can become addicted to a drug. However, certain factors can affect the likelihood of your developing an addiction:

  • Family history of addiction. Drug addiction is more common in some families and likely involves the effects of many genes. If you have a blood relative such as a parent or sibling with alcohol or drug problems, you’re at greater risk of developing a drug addiction.
  • Having another psychological problem. If you have a psychological problem such as depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder, you’re more likely to become dependent on drugs.
  • Peer pressure. Particularly for young people, peer pressure is a strong factor in starting to use and abuse drugs.
  • Lack of family involvement. A lack of attachment with your parents may increase the risk of addiction, as can a lack of parental supervision.
  • Anxiety, depression and loneliness. Using drugs can become a way of coping with these painful psychological feelings.
  • Taking a highly addictive drug. Some drugs, such as heroin and cocaine, cause addiction faster than do others.

Complications

By Mayo Clinic staff

 

Dependence on drugs can create a number of life-changing complications. They can include:

  • Health problems. Drug addiction can lead to a range of both short- and long-term mental and physical health problems. These depend on what drug is taken.
  • Unconsciousness, coma and sudden death. Taking some drugs can be particularly risky, especially if you take high doses or combine them with other drugs or alcohol.
  • Getting a communicable disease. People who are addicted to a drug are more likely to get an infectious disease such as HIV, either through unsafe sex or by sharing needles.
  • Accidents. If you’re addicted to a drug, you’re more likely to drive or engage in other dangerous activities while intoxicated.
  • Suicide. People who are addicted to drugs commit suicide more often than do people who aren’t.
  • Family problems. Behavioral changes may cause marital or family strife and custody issues.
  • Work issues. Work performance may decline, and you may be absent from work more often.
  • Problems at school. Academic performance and motivation to excel in school may suffer.
  • Legal issues. These can stem from stealing to support your drug addiction, driving while under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and disputes over child custody.
  • Financial problems. Spending money to support your habit takes away money from your other needs, could put you into debt, and could lead you into illegal or unethical behaviors.
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